a. Arduino/Raspberry pi related workshops
b. Autocad for inventor 2013 workshops
This is a repost of my answer on Quora .
Whether its hardware or software or any product, spend lot of time and energy in customer development . Finding out what users want and think they will pay for is more critical than what we think will be cool for them.
Since HW involves lot of capital, you need to get the above part right.Once you have it, you would need to figure out the device/product environment conditions aka environment limitations, regulatory restrictions/guidelines/requirement whatever you call and very likely you will be changing the product spec or operating conditions to match the new reality.
Then come up with product design (look and feel), in layman terms, the product casing or how users should feel like when they see the product. Very likely because of the product casing/packaging, you will very likely revise your spec again..
Next, from the spec you came up with talking to users etc, figure out what it translated to technical components. Like how many HDMI ports , VGA, optical . USB ports etc, what network interfaces you support, what will be the capacity of hard drive and whether it should be SSD etc..
In case of Apple-TV for example, you might need to video encoding/decoding etc, you need good video decoder…check who sells video decoder chips (probably ARM or imagination tech) , also depending what addln functionality you need, you will also need main CPU processor, so figure out if its going to be ARM or MIPS or Intel Atom ..While you are figuring this, also check the embedded OS you want the device to be running and then check if the compatibility of OS with HW at device driver level…
Check all potential vendors for each component and many times they give you sample pricing (typically in volume of 10K pricing …some times they might give you pricing for 1K pieces as well )
Once you have selected vendors, figure out the power consumption and see if the power budget makes sense.Figure out if you want to your device to be running both in Africa and Siberia ..Accordingly revise your power budget and therefore you will change product spec and/or product casing etc..
Next implement the design spec using platforms from upverter etc and simulate the design. Next select the PCB vendor who can do the design and manufacturing for you…Board design/packaging might impact lot of factors starting from Design spec all the way to casing etc..So this is important..
Add all the pricing and get the BOM (bills of materials) ..Check if the BOM makes sense for the price range you are planning to sell..If your initial BOM at this stage is for example 25$ , triple that number because you are still missing pcb design and manf, board packaging , yield, lab bring up , compliance testing , QA and other NRE costs…Now check if you are still making money for the price that your customer is willing to pay …If you initially planned to sell for 50$, but your BOM is around 75$, you are loosing money and unless you have lot of money where you can afford losses initially to gain traction, you might have to change your spec again..Most likely you will remove some components and/or reduce some components..for example you might say I will only add 2 HDMI instead of 4, you might reduce processor speed from 1GhZ to 750MHz etc…
Now go back to your customer and convince him that what you are still delivering is lot of value to him and you are still solving their pain points and only removing the nice to have features…If they agree, proceed further..
While you are doing all this, start your embedded and SW development process in parallel using developer or emulator prototyping boards…Have this ready first so that you can do the demo to potential customers/investors on how the product will perform once HW is done …Show them once manufactured, its plug and play ..get their reactions/feedback..very likely you might change your spec totally or part of it…Once you do this 2-3 times and feeling confident, accelerate your PCB board design and manufacturing and get the prototype out…As a start up ,never go for manf without getting SW/Embedded part ready ..Its more like a lean start up development model for hardware..
If you are building a ASIC like Apple does for their Apple-TV , its different on lot of other aspects and I wont recommend it unless you can raise 10-20M$ easily and can hire 10-20 HW engg team …Of course not every product needs an ASIC or even an FPGA and don’t have to rely on leading manf technologies….
As as others have commented , you need to worry if you are infringing IP or if you are creating IP, make IP protection as part of your design thinking and strategy process..You can start with a provisional patent to buy you time and give you a opp to figure if you still want to go ahead after the feedback from SW demo/product demo..
BTW, try to use opensource technologies and customize it where you can…especially the design tools..Some tools are very expensive…Some vendors give their tools free for folks using their IC platform…Another good advice is try to limit vendors as much as you can, it will save you lot of headaches on lot of areas…
I might have left lot of other pieces, but this should give you a good idea of the process involved..If you need details or clarifications, feel free to ping me..
This is a re-post of discussion I had on Quora.com . You can read it here by clicking this link
When designing an IT system for Hospitals, you would have to consider many factors like
1. Who are main users of the systems
2. What are the legal requirements
3. What are regulatory requirements
(img courtesy : blog.slkylight.com )
4. What are security considerations you have to follow
5. Would the users need access to the systems outside hospitals organizational or IT boundaries
6. How will you protect the privacy of the data you would be storing
7. What kind of redundancy do you need and how are you going to replicate the data
8. Will you be needing to integrate with other 3rd party vendors for example EHR providers and if it is then how do you plan to integrate them. Think in terms of integration issues, data migration/replication/access etc.This should also cover the different types of software/databases you or your organization would be using.
9. How many different systems does your hospital have and what kind of data they are creating/accessing/retrieving and in what format.
10.Also think about the regular IT maintenance tasks you have to follow.
11. Think in terms of the HW reliability and backup plans.
12. What kind of latency is tolerated while doing stuff real time for your users. This will help you plan your network issues.
13. Understanding the load/performance issues of your IT depending on the expected usage will help plan on selecting right infrastructure.
Here is how I would approach : I would build a patient journey template . The moment patient wants to visit your hospital to the moment they walk out . Along the process list all the interactions they will have with your staff and what kind of IT infrastructure you need to support them.
This should also include what your physicians will need to support the patient like clinical decision support systems.
Next, build the template from the physicians and/or hospital administration point of view.
Also think about how to monitor the patient remotely and how to process real time alerts and what kind of infrastructure you need for that. For example those alerts or data might be passed to hospital nursing station who would then filter and send it to order .
Do this from the point of view of all users of the system (or stakeholders of the system like patients/nurse/physicians/administration) etc and by the time you are done with this exercise you will have around 6-8 templates.
Now keeping all the templates in front of you, comeup with a top-down template that comprises whole system. If there are multiple systems (in the context of IT) doing the same thing, eliminate/simply them keeping price/features/support/security/privacy/compliance in mind.
You might have to iterate multiple times to build something you can go forward.
Next introduce the hardware required to support the IT systems you selected keeping reliability/costs/power in mind. This will give you a decent understanding of what your datacenter will look like . See if the HW system costs and electricity/cooling costs still makes sense. If not revise and make tradeoffs
Next introduce the connectivity part. What components needs to be on what kind of networks. Wireless/Wired etc. Think of network security here. Figure out a strategy on how you will protect against intruders/hackers/breaches etc…
Since you are hospital, you must be using some latest and greatest surgical equipment and many of them are wired and some are wireless or require different protocols. Plan ahead for these and include this as a part of IT development plan.
Use of ipads or tablets is increasing in hospitals. There might be additional devices your staff will be using . Sort of BYOD (bring your own devices) . So think what kind of mobile device management technology you want to use and how it fits in this picture.
There might be many more, but this is pretty broad picture and this is how I would approach if I were to design/develop patient centered hospital.
1. Stick few systems and vendors if possible. This will solve interoperability issues
2. Storage plays a key role. So select right database technology and database vendor. I prefer documented oriented databases.
3. I’m really not sure if you can have open access meeting all stringent legal/compliance/privacy/regulatory req. There will be tradeoffs. Ask your startup what you will be loosing or your patients/staff will be loosing and what you will be gaining.
4. How do you plan to have CMS (content management system ) serving both patients and medical staff. You need 2 CMS systems one where patients can access and other only hospital staff/physicians can access.Its very important from legal/security point of view to separate or have them in network boundaries.
5.Since you want state of art, what kind of login access are you planning to have ? Biometric? They come with their own sets of requirements
6. Same with clinical decision support systems. Collect all the requirements each of dept needs.
Would love to know from readers on how they would approach or design an advanced hospital IT infra with patient centered care in mind…
Very first qn that crosses the mind of first time startup entrepreneurs. How do I protect my idea ?
Foremost important thing : Ideas are worthless unless executed properly with viable business plan.
Here are some ways:
1. File for provisional patent if you plan to sell in US..its not very expensive, but creates some barrier of entry..If you are not in US, follow same in your country if it has IP laws
2. Register your company and file for trademarks ..again not very expensive, but its not very cheap…
3. Partner with a very reputable law firm.For example my lawfirm is WSGR (www.wsgr.com) and they are very good and rank among top 10 in US. Many lawfirms are startup friendly or find one who is. Many defer fees or don’t charge anything for 1st yr. Negotiate with them. Partnering with good law firm has its benefits and it also signal investors that you are advised by some good firms.
4. Build MVP faster . Ideas don’t matter much. Execution and viable business models matter. So work on that.
5. Once you register your company legally and have finalized idea/business model , start branding campaigns to generate some traction..these are not so easy and takes time.
6. Start thinking of EU/FDA compliance process…They require tons of documentation and are very process oriented..get familiar with it…Familiarity and knowledge is important and can keep your copy cats away for some time…
7. As I mentioned earlier, Start selling …Many think they should sell only when they have beta or final product…Selling should begin very early to really understand what works and what doesn’t with minimum resources…fail fast and fail often should be the key to accelerate your success 🙂
Would love to hear more ideas and thoughts from readers.
An interesting and relevant question was asked by a user aq Quora forums . I think this is something every entrepreneur constantly thinks about ..Have something to contribute, join the discussion here or at Quora at this link :
I would really look at the following at the minimum assuming you have found your target mkt likes your product based on your MVP.
1. User acq costs
2. Engg costs to develop
3. Life time value (how long you expect to retain them)
4. Anticipated Support costs to retain them
5. Current pricing of existing alternatives
Based on above, If you can come with a price tag where consumer perceives the value of your offering higher than the price tag you set, they will likely to buy. If the value they perceive is more or less same as your price tag , they might still buy depending on the pain level and how good existing alternatives are. If its less than perceived value, it will most likely will not result in any sale.
Also it really depends on who uses your product vs who buys your product. In some cases, if you are selling which is in high or premium range, people might want to check with their spouses or some level of social validation that its on to buy. The same might not apply if you sell to youngsters/teens/singles who earn decent salary or something which can be classified as lifestyle…
Pricing is really a psychological based decision and you have to do multiple experiments to figure what’s the better price tag. One last thing is dont go for short term pricing tricks as consumers will eventually realize the value and your brand recognition will fall….
image courtesy: machiine.com
I’ve been recently asked by many and also I’m seeing similar qns on Quora and coursera entrepreneurship courses.If you are wondering what the question is . Its very simple. It goes along these lines…I have couple of ideas and/or I have shortlisted few of them. Now what do I do?
I was in the same boat multiple times and having been part of multiple startups as early employee and also as someone who failed once before while trying to start a consumer electronics before, I started following this lean methodology framework for my current digital healthcare startup (www.sensoryhealthsystems.com)
1. Download lean canvas ( http://www.leanlaunchlab.com) to understand UVP of your solution. Have only 1-2 strong UVP that is directly addressing the pain points and must-haves
2. Break down your idea into multiple questions and for each qn
a. Talk to atleast 25 people.
b. Get feedback
c. Validate the hypothesis
3. Next download the business model canvas and fill in the whole canvas
a. Next change the customer segment and see how it impacts the cost/revenue stream
b. Keep doing this for all customer segments. You can make some approximations in terms of how much you might want to charge.
c. Repeat the above expt with Distribution channels. For example, if you are making an app that is downloadable via app store or google playstore, then you have give away 35% of what you make..web version you dont give any..so figure out how the distribution channel affects your revenue
d. Figure out who you want to partner with and what the partnership costs are
4. Next depending on whats your customer demographics , figure out the below by running mkting/ad campaigns
a. User acquisition costs (CAC)
b. Figure out the life time value (LTV)
c. Make sure LTV > 3 x CAC at the min
d. Figure out what the funneling looks like and how long does it take to convert a single user to paying customer
e. Figure out how you plan to retain customer and how much does it cost over the life time value of the customer..
5. Build up MVP and iterate it by constantly getting feedback from your prospects…try to sell them and see if they would be interested…if they are not interested, dig deeper why they dont want to ..is it not addressing the pain point directly, they dont see much value for the price you are offering , usability of product sucks or steep learning curve, trust etc….
6. Get some informal medical advisory team who is expert and understands the value proposition of your offering. Get 2-3 mentors as well who can guide on business side …
7. Once all the above are done, then form your core team, get a cofounder or principal, CTO and get the beta out….
Feel free to ping me if you have any qns. Good Luck…